Treatment options for colon cancer depends on several factors like stage of the cancer, type possible side effects and the patients overall health. There are several kinds of treatment that are used for colon cancer and they include:
This is the most common treatment for colon cancer and is called a surgical resection. In this procedure along with the affected part, part of the healthy colon or rectum and lymph nodes will be removed.
surgery is done by either of the three methods
- open method
- laparoscopic method
- robotic method
Other than a surgical resection, there are many other surgical options for colon cancer and they include:
In this traditional method, long cut is made vertically on the skin in the midline and along with the affected part, part of the healthy colon and lymph nodes will be removed. Usually it takes 7 to 8 days of hospital stay.
In this technique several viewing scopes are passed into the abdomen. The incisions made are small and recovery time is shorter than a standard colon surgery.
in this similar to the laparoscopic method incisions are small and instruments (robotic arms) are inserted and the surgeon operates at the console which controls the robotic arms.
Chemotherapy is the use of cytotoxic or anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. The most common ways used to give chemotherapy include the intravenous method where the tube is placed into the vein using a needle or the chemotherapy drugs can be taken orally by the patient. Chemotherapy may be given after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.
Targeted therapy is the kind of therapy that targets cancer cells including specific genes, proteins or even the tissue environment that contributes to the growth of cancer cells. This type of treatment blocks the growth and spread of cancer cells while limiting the damage that is done to healthy cells. There are different types of targeted therapies which that are used, they include:
A kind of targeted therapy that focuses on stopping angiogenesis, which is the process of making new blood cells. The tumor needs nutrients from the blood cells to survive and the goal of anti-angiogenesis therapy is to starve the tumor.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors
An EGFR inhibitor is a kind of targeted therapy and studies have found that blocking the epidermal growth factor receptor may be beneficial for blocking or slowing down the growth of colon cancer.
Also known as immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is a way of boosting the defenses of the body to fight cancer.
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or cryoablation
These procedures are used for the liver metastasis. In the procedure of a radiofrequency ablation, high energy radio waves are used to kill tumors. A CT scan or ultrasound is used to guide a needle like instrument through the skin and into the tumor. An electric current is passed to the tip of the instrument, releasing high frequency radio waves that heat the tumor and kill the cells. A cryoablation is a procedure that uses extreme cold to destroy a diseased tissue. The procedure is performed using hollow needles through which cooled thermally conductive fluids are circulated. The cryoprobes are positioned adjacent to the target in such a way that the freezing process will destroy the affected tissue.