Different types of stomach cancer include:
1. Adenocarcinomas are those which develop in the inner lining of the stomach and they are the most commonly occurring type.
2. Lymphomas are cancers of the immune system that may start anywhere in the lymph tissues. Lymphomas in the stomach are rare and account for 4 percent of stomach cancers.
3. Gastrointestinal tumors start in hormone producing cells of the stomach. They are a rare type of stomach cancer called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs).When viewed under a microscope GIST cells look similar to muscle nerve cells. They may develop throughout the digestive tract but 60 to 70 percent occur in the stomach.
4. Carcinoid tumors begin in the hormone producing cells of the stomach. They have a 3 percent incidence. They of three types:
- Type I and II ECL-cell carcinoids rarely spread and they stay in situ. They are also asymptomatic and may be discovered during an endoscopy for other health issues like acid reflux.
- Type III ECL-cell carcinoids are the aggressive kind which requires more aggressive treatment. The excess hormone secretion of carcinoid tumors lead to carcinoid syndrome which is marked by flushing, abdominal pain, diarrhea, construction of the bronchial tubes in the lungs, and in heart problems like valve dysfunction.
Tumours that are less common can start in the stomach. And tests for them are different from adenocarcinomas.
- Soft tissue sarcomas including gastrointestinal stromal tumours
- Lymphomas like mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
- Neuroendocrine or carcinoid tumours
Grades of stomach cancer
Grades of cancer indicate the appearance and the aggressiveness of cancer cells. The grade of cancer also helps oncologists the behaviour of cancer cells and the treatment needed to kill them. There are three grades of cancer.
- Grade 1 (low grade) cancer looks very much like normal cells
- Grade 2 cancer slightly resembles normal cells
- Grade 3 do not resemble normal cells at all.
Read more on how different types of stomach cancers are treated.