TNM Classification Of Stage 4 Liver cancer.

The liver cancer staging is done based on the TNM system of staging.

Picture of a patient suffering from liver cancer

The TNM system of staging has the following factors:

Tumor (T): This determines how large the cancer has grown or if there is more than one tumor in the liver or if the cancer has reached nearby structures in the liver like the veins.

Lymph node s (N): This factor indicates if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes

Metastasis (M): This factor refers to whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Liver cancer staging is done usually based on the results of the biopsies, physical exam and imaging tests. If surgery is conducted, the pathological state is determined by examining the tissue that was removed during the surgery.

Stage 4

Stage 4 liver cancer is the most advanced stage of cancer. It is also known as the metastatic stage which means the cancer has spread from the liver to other organs. This stage is further divided into substages 4A and 4B that has the following TNM categories:

Stage 4A

Any T
Single or multiple tumors of any size are found in the liver at this stage.

N1:
The cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes.

M0:
The cancer has not spread to distant sites.

Stage 4B

Any T:
Single or multiple tumors of any size are found in the liver.

Any N:
The cancer may or may not have spread to the nearby lymph nodes.

M1
The cancer has spread to distant sites like the bones or lungs.

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